Month: December 2015

Uber Security (Keys on Github)

As information-driven physical-world services like Uber, AirBnB and Square become more common they bring up some unique security issues for the interacting parties. To make the service effective they collect and store a large amount of user data. This data can be compromised as data needs to be shared not only with users but also with third party apps.  Then there is a threat of physical assault, physical damage and stolen card data.

At minimum, it is imperative to have a comprehensive information security program that protects the core data collection/processing pipeline and extends outwards to a) services built on top of the data and b) physical identities of the parties involved to assure them of trust in a brief interaction enabled by the information.

This article discusses how 50,000 driver information were compromised at Uber. The driver database keys were found on github ? How is that possible ?

If it is possible then it is a security incident that needs visibility, not just into the information within an enterprise but also outside it. The security incident and event monitoring products that exist (e.g. ArcSight, Bit9, CrowdStrike, Tanium) barely scratch the surface of this requirement – the haystack is bigger than we think it is and the needle we don’t know in advance.

The physical security is harder to deal with. One thing becomes apparent is that the reason the supply of hotels, cabs, even credit card issuers was constrained was due to legislation and regulations that were designed to create a high bar for an offering and build a high level of trust between the interacting parties.

Those lines are being redrawn with technology. The people impacted by the technology should be part of the conversation in coming up with appropriate ways to regulate the offerings to maintain security and safety.

Cassandra and the Internet of Boilers

A fascinating story about use of Cassandra for analyzing sensor data from boilers to predict their failuresin UK homes by British Gas appeared here.

The design of Cassandra is intuitively clear to me in its use of a single primary index to distribute the query load among a set of nodes that can be scaled up linearly. It uses a ring architecture based on consistent hashing. It emphasizes Availability and Partition-Tolerance over Consistency in the CAP theorom.

The data structure is a two level hash table, with the first level key being the row key, and the second level key being the column key.

Where Cassandra differs from a SQL db is in the flexibility of the data model. In SQL one can model complex relationships, which allow for complex queries using joins to be done. Cassandra has support for CQL (Cassandra Query Language) which is like SQL but does not support joins or transactions.  The impact is that the queries with CQL cannot be as flexible (or adhoc) as those for SQL. The kind of queries that can be done have to be planned in advance. Doing other queries would be inefficient. However this drawback is mitigated by use of Spark along with Cassandra. In my understanding the Spark cluster is run in a parallel Cassandra cluster.

Why are joins important ? It goes back to relationships in an E-R diagram. Can’t we just model entities ? When we store Employees in one table and Departments in another in a SQL db, each row has an id which is a shorthand for the employee or the department. This simplification forces us to look up both tables again via a join in a query – say when asking for all employees belong to (only) the finance department. But tables like departments may be small in size so they could be replicated in memory for quickly recovering associations. And tables like employees can be naturally partitioned by the employee id which is unique. This means that SQL and complex relationships may not be needed for number of use cases. If ACID compliance is also not a requirement, then nosql is a good bet. Cassandra differs from MongoDB in that it can scale much better.

Quote from British Gas: “We’re dealing largely with time series data, and Spark is 10 to 100 times quicker as it is operating on data in-memory…Cassandra delivers what we need today and if you look at the Internet of Things space; that is what is really useful right now.”

Here’s a blog that triggered this thought along with a talk by Rachel@datastax, who also assured me that Cassandra has been hardened for security and has Kerberos support in the free version.

British Gas operates Hive, a competitor to Nest for thermostats. Note that couple months back British Gas reported 2200 of its accounts were compromised.

CERT Warns Wind Turbines Open to Compromise

Cert issued a warning that certain wind turbines are open to compromise.

“A successful attack would allow the malicious actor to lock out a legitimate administrator and take control of the device. .. the vulnerability is easy to exploit by an attacker who does not need to be authenticated to the device, or have direct physical access to it.”

A fix is issued but no OTA updates supported .. imagine climbing each turbine to upgrade the software.

Couple days earlier CERT issued an advisory about gas detectors being compromised. Incorrect gas level reports could be hazardous to equipment and human life.

DARPA asked for proposals around automatic detection and patching of security vulnerabilities.  In addition it raised an alert abut power grid vulnerability and proposed a plan to recover from a massive power grid attack. The power grid has faced hundreds of attacks, partly because it relies on 1970s era technology which cannot be upgraded as service cannot be interrupted. The addition of SmartMeters which make it more connected can increase the vulnerability level.

Spark, Storm, Ayasdi, Hadoop

The huge amount of data that IOT systems will generate will call for analyses of different types. A brief review of some systems and what they are used for.

Apache Spark: Uses distributed memory abstractions for primarily in-memory processing. Built with Scala. Useful for finding data clusters and for detecting statistical anomalies by looking for distance from the cluster. Comes with a machine learning system on top. Does not come with its own file system (use nfs/hdfs). Useful for complex processing, where state needs to be maintained in the event stream for correlations. Described as ‘batch processing with micro-streaming analysis’, but looks headed to cover streaming analyses as well.

Apache Storm: Real-time Streaming data analysis. Developed at Twitter, written in Clojure. Unlike Hadoop which has two layers (map, reduce), Storm can have N layers and a flexible topology consisting of Spouts (data source units) and Bolts (data processing units). Storm has been superceded by Heron in terms of performance. IBM Streams is a commercial offering also for stream processing..

Ayasdi: Topological data processing allows one to discover what interesting features of the data are, without knowing what to look for in advance. This is in contrast to most systems where one needs to know what one is looking for. Claims insight discovery.

Hadoop: Used for batch processing of a large amounts of data, using map/reduce primitives. Comes with HDFS. Cloudera (and others) have made significant improvements to it with an interactive SQL interface and usability improvements for BI (Impala).

InfluxDB: Time-series db for events and metrics. Optimized for writes and claims to scale to IOT workloads.

ZooKeeper: A coordination service for distributed applications.

Amazon S2N and OpenSSL

In the last few years a number of OpenSSL vulnerabilities have come to light.  Heartbleed was a critical one which was exploited in the field. It basically allowed a client to send a malicious heartbeat to the server and get back chunks of server memory – which can contain passwords. It was estimated that two thirds of the servers in the world had the vulnerability. The fix was to upgrade OpenSSL, revoke existing server certs and request new SSL server certs.

Heartbleed previously triggered OpenBSD to fork OpenSSL to LibreSSL and Google to fork OpenSSL to BoringSSL.

Amazon S2N is a TLS/SSL implementation that is 6000 lines of code – so it is small, compact, fast and its correctness can be more easily verified. It uses only crypto functions from openssl and reimplements the SSL layer. This is a healthy direction for IOT and for certification of SSL, for example FIPS. S2N is short for Signal to Noise.

A timing attack was recently identified against it and has since been mitigated.

Note that two factor auth solutions would actually solve the problem presented by Heartbleed. There are several solutions in this area – Authy, Clef, Google Authenticator, Duo, Okta, Oracle Authenticator, ..

Docker Container Security

A block diagram of docker is below and a description of docker daemon is here. The docker client commands talk to the docker-daemon to start one of the containers in the docker registry, or to start a process described in the command line as a new docker container. Docker provides a simple interface to linux container technology which is a lightweight VM.


A few problems with this. Who has access to the docker-daemon to control the containers ? How is integrity of the containers ensured ? How is the host protected from the code running in the containers ?

Docker recently announced a few security features in Nov DockerCon

  • to lock down the container in a registry with the container image signed with a key from hardware device Yubikey; see here for a description of original issue where image checksums were not verified by docker daemon
  • to scan the official container images for vulnerabilities
  • to run containers with a userlevel namespace instead of one that allows root access to the host. This protects the host OS as explained here. The userlevel namespace feature has been available in LXC for over an year, but not in docker.

For access control to the docker daemon there is activity with a design doc here.

Twistlock is a container security and monitoring tool that attempts a comprehensive approach – access control to the containers, runtime scanning of files for malware signatures, vulnerability scanning, looking at network packets, so on. A recent meetup on Dec 1 discussed this product. It features integration with Kerberos and LDAP.

In terms of the kernel,  processes from all containers share the same kernel, the same networking layer. So what’s the level of isolation provided to container processes. This depends on vulnerabilities in the processes themselves – how many ports are open, whether injection attacks are possible etc. If two containers are running processes and a process from the one attacks a process from another – for example memory scraping, then Twistlock can detect it only if it can identify the offending process as malware using signature matching.

A Dockerfile is used to specify a container image using commands to spec the base os, rpms, utilities and scripts. USER specifies the userid under which the following RUN, CMD or ENTRYPOINT instruction run. EXPOSE specs a port to be opened for external access. A docker image is built from the dockerfile and contains the actual bits needed for the container to run. The image can be loaded directly or pushed to a docker registry from  which it can be pulled to clients.