Month: November 2015

“Computer Detective in the Cloud”

Although light on details, this is an application of AI for securing against credit card fraud in real time using cloud computing.

AI has been in the news a few times this month – Google (TensorFlow), Facebook (new milestones in AI), Microsoft releasing Cortana (Nadella welcomes our AI overlords) and mention of an AI spring from IBM and Salesforce.

Machine learning has also been applied to spam detection, intrusion detection, malicious file detection, malicious url detection, insurance claims leakage detection, activity/behaviour based authentication, threat detection and data loss prevention.

Worth noting that these successes are typically in narrow domains with narrow variations of what is being detected. Intrusion detection is a fairly hard problem for machine learning because the number of variations of attacks is high. As someone said, we’ll be using signatures for a long time.

The previous burst of activity around neural networks in the late 80’s and early 90’s had subsided around the same time as the rise of the internet in the mid to late 90’s. Around 2009, as GPU’s made parallel processing more mainstream, there was a resurgence in activity – deeper, multilayer, networks looking at overlapping regions of images (similar to wavelets) lead to convolutional neural networks being developed. These have had successes in image and voice recognition. A few resources – GPU gems for general purpose computing, visualizing convolutional netscaffe deep learning framework.

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Kafka Security

Kafka is a system for continuous, high throughput messaging of event data, such as logs, to enable near real-time analytics. It is structured as a distributed message broker with incoming-event producers sending messages to topics and outgoing-event consumers.  Motivations behind its development include decoupling producers and consumers from each other for flexibility, reducing time to process events and increasing throughput. Couple analogies to think of it are a sender using sendmail to send an email to an email address (topic);  or a message “router” which decides the destination for a particular message – except Kafka persists the messages until the consumer is ready for them. It is an intermediary in the log processing pipeline – there is no processing of data itself on Kafka – there are no reads for instance. In contrast to JMS, one can send batch messages to Kafka and individual messages do not have to be acknowledged.

A design thesis of Kafka is that sequential (contiguous) disk access is very fast and can be even faster than random memory access. It uses zero copy, and uses a binary protocol over TCP, not HTTP.  A quote from design link – “This combination of pagecache and sendfile means that on a Kafka cluster where the consumers are mostly caught up you will see no read activity on the disks whatsoever as they will be serving data entirely from cache”.  This along with the distributed design makes it faster than competing pub-sub systems.

A proposal for adding security to it has been underway, for enterprise use, to control who can publish and subscribe to topics – https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/KAFKA/Security . A talk on Kafka security by HortonWorks on integrating Kerberos authentication, SSL encryption with Kafka was given at a recent meetup. The slides are at – http://www.slideshare.net/harshach/kafka-security.

Of interest was an incident where the SSL patch caused the cluster to become unstable and increase latencies on a production cluster. The issue was debugged using profiling. Although SSL did increase latencies, this specific issue was narrowed to a bug unrelated to SSL in the same patch which had to do with zero copy.

How does IOT affect Identity and Access Management ? 

For the purpose of the IOT, an individual device can be abstracted as a specialized service which produces and consumes data. In addition, the device has certain capabilities to act on, or transform data on a discrete or continuous basis.

Who should have access to these services and capabilities ? It could be

  • other devices in proximity to the device
  • external services
  • certain users

Who gets access is a function of the identity of the devices, the identities of the entities accessing the service and policies governing access (which can include parameters such as location, time, role or more complex rules).

To determine access, a device should be capable of

  • identifying itself , its services and capabilities
  • obtaining authorization for the services and capabilities (before exercising them), and presenting these when requested. This authorization includes a signed access policy
  • updating or invalidating the access policy as time goes on

The access policies need to be applied to the data flows based on the identities and be rich enough to capture use cases of interest.

Identity of ‘Things’ in IOT

What’s the identity of the device ? There can be multiple identities based on whether the device is identifying itself to a user, to another device of the same type, or to other devices in the ecosystem that it is a part of (say a component of a car).

Having a unique device id and leveraging it for the services that are built on the device is a design choice. Consider the choices for iPhone and Android. In the iPhone the device id permeates the application layer; the application developer and can target his application for specific devices and must register the device for developing on it. This design choice allows the device to check the applications that are run on it are valid and their associated developer is registered with Apple. It strengthens the associations in the ecosystem of devices, developers, applications and users.

In Android the security certificates were at the JVM layer which allows self-signed certificates. Here the device id is not used as a strong identifier that is known to applications and developers. This is one reason the open system is more prone to malware.

A unique hardware identity is something to look for in IOT designs. Here’s an article from Intel/McAfee discussing EPID an immutable device ID that can be used for identifying and also anonymizing. https://blogs.mcafee.com/business/intels-iot-gateway-enhancements/

Update: On Nov 25, news came of a number of IOT devices using the same HTTPS certificate and SSH keys. See here. Large clusters of devices on the net are exposed on the internet this way.

Biometric User Identification for IOT

Two-Factor authentication solutions are based on the premise that the combined verification of (i) a thing possessed (a card) and (ii) a piece of information known to the user (a pin or password) provides a high degree of assurance to authenticate users. For financial and enterprise transactions it gives a high level of security. But 2FA is not a seamless solution – as the number and variety of services and devices for a user increases – it requires the user to carry a number of cards/tokens/devices and remember several passwords (that are unique, complex, updated). It is also not a foolproof solution as the identity theft continues to be a problem.

With the large number of IOT applications and devices appearing, the problem will become worse. Consider a health monitoring device that needs to periodically share information of a patient with her family members and doctor, while keeping the information safe from cloud attacks. Or consider keyless entry to vehicles or homes. For such common use cases entering complex passwords would be cumbersome.

With biometric authentication methods, as present with fingerprint based authentication on Apple and Samsung phones, there is a more direct identification of the user. But the way this is commonly used is not to eliminate passwords completely – it is typically used to

  1. store existing passwords securely,
  2. reduce repeated password entry by extending session created by an existing password
  3. combined with a user identifier such as a phone number or email address
  4. combined with a password (e.g. for byod deployments where multiple users can register fingerprints)

One can imagine a two factor auth where both factors are biometric, such as multiple fingerprints, or fingerprint and iris authentication. Such a two factor biometric approach could eliminate the need to remember passwords and reduce friction in accessing services securely. An example is the combination of facial recognition and fingerprint recognition.

Biometric authentication methods being worked on include gait recognition and voice biometrics. These can be included in a continuous authentication method.

SecureAuth and BehavioSec Auth Presentation, Palo Alto

IDC gave a good security landscape overview at the SecureAuth executive luncheon today in Palo Alto.

SecureAuth provides a flexible adaptive authentication system that balances security with user experience.

BehavioSec does biometric authentication based on user behavior such as the pattern of keystrokes when entering a password. It builds a statistical profile and them determines if the password is entered anomalously. It provides collector SDKs to collect this information from mobile apps and websites.

In case of a large difference between the expected pattern and the current pattern, the SecureAuth integration forces a step up auth to a second factor.

There is adoption of this kind of technology in banking, retail and other verticals.

Security Acquisitions Oct 2015

Lancope, Viewfinity, Vormetric, LogEntries, Boxer, Secure Islands, Silanis

http://www.infoworld.com/article/3000479/security/security-acquisitions-reach-a-fever-pitch.html

Lancope – StealthWatch provides a visual representation of the network to detect anomalies that could signify an attack. In the event of an infection, StealthWatch analyzes traffic between servers to determine which hosts were affected. Acquired by Cisco, $453m.

Viewfinity – Endpoint security for windows. App control features and administrative privilege capabilities to protect against zero-day attacks, malware and threats.

Vormetric – Filesystem encryption, keeping metadata in clear and enterprise key-management for third party encryption keys. Acquired by Thales Security for $400m

LogEntries – machine data search technology to help security teams  investigate security incidents deeply. Spun out of University College Dublin (UCD). Acquired by Rapid7, $68m. 3k customers.

Boxer – Android email app, acquired by VMWare

Secure Islands –  IQProtector looks at content and wraps/protects it based with policy based DRM automatically. “Secure Islands’ Data Immunization uniquely embeds protection within information itself at the moment of creation or initial organizational access. This process is automatic and accompanies sensitive information throughout its lifecycle from creation, through usage and collaboration to storage.” Acquired by Microsoft.

Silanis – e-Signatures with strong crypto algorithmic and keys